A plastic bag belongs to one of the 10 types of waste that are most commonly found in the environment. This is well shown by the analysis of the waste collected during the International Coastal Cleanup’s cleaning days, organized by the Ocean Conservancy and also by further analysis conducted during other campaigns.
SOME EXTRA DATA ABOUT PLASTIC
Plastic production accounts for 8% of the world oil production. At the current growth’s rate the world produces 240 millions of tons of plastic per year and only 3% of them are recycled. In other words, 97% of the plastic produced worldwide is not recycled.
About half of the plastic amount produced annually is used to make disposable items or packaging that are thrown away within a year time.
The world plastic production is growing at a rate of 3.5% a year and this means that every 20 years the amount of plastic produced could double.
The plastic debris accumulates in the environment and the problem is rapidly getting bigger.
PLASTIC POLLUTION IN THE SEAS AND ON THE COAST
About 4/5 of the waste we found in the sea comes from soil eroded by the wind or dragged by water drains and rivers. Only 20% of it comes from waste dispersed in the sea by ships. Almost 90% of the waste floating in the sea is made of plastic.
IT IS ESTIMATED THAT 5% OF ALL THE PLASTIC PRODUCED SINCE THE 1950S ENDED UP IN THE SEA.
A report elaborated within a United Nations’ environmental protection program has estimated the presence of 20,000 units of debris of medium caliber in 1 square km of the sea surface. In some most affected areas the amount of units of debris exceeded 400,000 pieces per square km.
In England the national institution for the sea protection, The Marine Conservation Society which promotes campaigns for cleaning beaches and coasts, found that since a first research carried out in 1994, there was an increase in plastic waste of 146%.
In the last 10 years the quantity of abandoned plastic bottles increased by 67%, plastic bags increased by 54% and cigarette butts increased by 44% (not biodegradable because they contain cellulose acetate).
EFFECTS ON THE MARINE FAUNA
At a global level there are at least 143 marine species that have fallen victim of entanglement (when the animals are harnessed in bags, nets or other plastic waste and end up dying of starvation, suffocation or drowning).
Among them as mayor prays, there are all the species of sea turtles which swallow the plastic bags mistaking them for jellyfish. The species which swallow plastic are estimated to be 177 and 95% of them are sea birds.
It is not possible to establish the total number of the various species of marine fauna which every year remain victim of plastic because there are no monitoring stations or studies in the world that deal with this phenomenon in the long term even considering only a small area.
HOWEVER, ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS HAVE HYPOTHESIZED ESTEEMS BASED ON DATA COLLECTED FROM STUDIES.
They have surveyed locally the total number of carcasses of animals found during a given period of time and within a given territory.
On the basis of these data, some projections quantify the annual deaths by entanglement or by plastic ingestion at least in 1 million of sea birds and in 100,000 units between marine mammals and turtles.
Public opinion often wonders what is the most harmful or what is the most massively present plastic waste in the environment, if it is the bag or fishing nets or if it is the extremely dangerous six-ring plastic packaging that holds cans together…
The answer is that all the plastic is harmful because of its indestructibility and permanence when dispersed in the environment.
SINCE IT IS NOT BIODEGRADABLE IT DOES NOT DISSOLVE BUT IT BREAKS UP VERY SLOWLY INTO SMALLER AND SMALLER PARTS.
IT REACHES INCREASINGLY SMALLER FORMATS AND IT CAN BE INGESTED BY EVERY ORGANISM WHICH INHABITS THE OCEANS.
It goes through the tiny Krill crustaceans or salps which constitutes the zooplankton to arrive to be consumed by whales.
Charles Moore, founder and researcher at the Algalita Marine Research Foundation, carried out a first study in 1999 by taking water samples at various depths and analyzing the content in the laboratory.
The quantity of these plastic microparticles exceeded the percentage of zoo plankton present in water on average in a ratio of 6 to 1 and 30 to 1 (30 times more plastic) in more compromised areas.
Subsequent surveys carried out in 2007 found that the percentage of plastic increased fivefold.
Scholars of Algalita and other marine research associations arrived at the conviction based on their scientific studies, that plastics could increase by 100% every THREE years.
UNFORTUNATELY, THE ANNUAL INCREASE IN RECENT YEARS RAISES FEARS THAT THIS FORECAST IS AT FAULT.
PLASTIC AND POLLUTING CHEMICALS
The plastic in the sea acts like a sponge attracting all those water-repellent chemical substances such as those grouped in the category called POP (acronym of Persistent Organic Pollutants, but also heavy metals such as mercury, zinc and lead, which are absorbed by plastic fragments of debris in concentrations up to a million times higher than the one in the sea water.
These chemicals over the years become highly decomposition-resistant and they take decades to decay with obvious toxic effects for the environment.
Other substances harmful to our health are phthalates, chemical additives used by processing plastic to produce films, toys or objects in PVC.
All these substances called “endocrine disruptors” strike in group; the food chain goes up to the man and, in his food all these substances mix in a poisonous cocktail – especially for the hormonal balance.
It can cause a serious damage during the embryonic development and in the first years of the child’s life with consequences on the reproductive system, on the immune defenses and on the nervous system.
THE SCENARIO JUST PRESENTED HAS ONLY ONE CAUSE: THE MAN WHO HAS PROFOUNDLY CHANGED THE PLANET, DESTROYING NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE NAME OF EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS AND IGNORING AN ESSENTIAL FACTOR.
THE RESPECT FOR THE WORLD THAT HOSTS HIM.
THE EARTHBI PROJECT
Its first objective, therefore, is to reduce the dispersion and accumulation of plastic products that are not biocompatible with the environment, thanks to an innovative product that manages not to contaminate the air, the soil, the rivers, the lakes and the oceans in which we live, walk, breathe and whose fruits we nourish ourselves with.
The current recycling policies for polluting plastic materials are fundamental but not decisive.
THE PROJECT, UNIQUE IN THE WORLD’S PANORAMA, WAS CONCEIVED IN A COMPLETELY REVOLUTIONARY WAY.
It combines the virtual world – through the creation of a special utility token for the “green” sector called “ERA” – polymers with characteristics of high biodegradability, quality and a wider possible use. In essence, the project aims at the diffusion of innovative biopolymers, generated with industrial property rights (patents and know-how).
The ERA utility token will allow buyers to get more raw materials or discounts on finished products made of bioplastics.
ERA CAN BE PURCHASED THROUGH SPECIFIC PORTALS.
EarthBi will have full traceability of the production chain thanks to the use of blockchain technology in order to guarantee customers and consumers the qualities and characteristics declared.
The availability of Earthbi biopolymers will be around 60,000 tons per year.
The project will be implemented thanks to the use of private equity and debt capital at the same time.
The potential of the bioplastic market is enormous: currently the main outlet market is Europe, with bioplastics consumption in 2017 of 2.05 millions of tons, of which 42.9% are biobased and biodegradable.
Among these quantities, 58% is now used in the packaging sector. Industry development forecasts indicate that over five years, the production will grow to 2.44 millions of tons, an increase of 19%.
If we look at the global market, the situation is even more interesting: with 4.1 millions of tons of production capacity in 2016, bioplastics represent about 1.7% of the world polymer market and the growth’s esteems forecast an increase of almost 30% over the next three years.
Bioplastics can be used in many industrial sectors, such as packaging, automotive, transport, construction, beverage, biomedical, pharma, cosmetics etc., where they will replace traditional polluting plastics, such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyester.
WHY SHOULD YOU CHOOSE EARTHBI BIOPLASTIC?
The EarthBi bioplastic has characteristics which give it a consistent competitive advantage over similar products, as it is a biopolymer entirely biobased and 100% biodegradable.
In fact, the production process takes place through the use of renewable raw materials and does not need pure materials.
The final product, in fact, can be used in systems dedicated to the processing of traditional plastic, without the necessity of modifying them and it is particularly suitable in the injection and extrusion production process.
Regarding their “life period”, the artifacts made with the EarthBi bioplastic are not only biodegradable, but the process takes place extremely quickly compared to other plastics.
This all thanks to the patents and know-how owned by the Group that will be used to improve the product and the production process.
AN ALREADY CONCRETE IDEA
The development and implementation of EarthBi bioplastics will soon be launched in a first plant, located in Italy, initially equipped with a single production line, active in 4-5 months after the project start-up. This capacity, in the following 10-12 months, will be further expanded.
Simultaneously with this last phase, construction sites will be set up for the construction of the other production plants located in Europe, in order to initiate the production in 28-32 months, all thanks to private equity and debt capital.
Distribution of ERAs
The EarthBi project does not, however, envisage the launch of virtual currency (“IEO”).
The process will start with the provision of ERA tokens.
In this way it will allow buyers to become owners of a token utility which confers the right to receive EarthBi bioplastics, or goods produced in such bioplastic, in greater quantities or at a more advantageous price than the market price.
Therefore, it is not a cryptocurrency issue but an early purchase and at a much more advantageous price than the finished product or Bioplastics.